Basic theoretical research is the basis of discipline construction, and also an important guideline for the research of applied countermeasures. The leaders of the Chinese Abacus and Mental Arithmetic Association (hereinafter referred to as the CAMAA) have attached great importance to theoretical research and academic exchange activities, have always put scientific research as the focus of work, and are committed to using scientific theory to lead the development of abacus and mental arithmetic education and teaching, and promote the formation of a good situation in which academic research and application of achievements promote each other.
In 2018, the Ninth Council of the CAMAA scientifically formulated the "Medium and Long term Development Plan of Abacus and Mental Arithmetic (2018-2022)", focusing on three major projects, and striving to continue to explore the scientific mysteries and mechanism of abacus and mental arithmetic from the perspective of cognitive behavior, psychology, education and brain science on the basis of previous research. The three projects have been successfully concluded, and the research results are fruitful, further confirming the scientific value of abacus-based mental arithmetic.
In the first half of 2022, the CAMAA began to prepare for the 2022 seminar on abacus and mental arithmetic and carried out essay solicitation activities. On November 16, the seminar was held online with the theme of "scientific exploration and teaching practice of abacus-based mental arithmetic", and invited relevant experts and representatives of excellent authors to discuss and exchange, which not only reflected the inheritance of the thought of the older generation of leaders and experts, but also focused on the latest scientific theory and practical research results. This collection of essays collects 7 latest scientific research achievements of the "three major projects" of the CAMAA and 44 excellent papers collected in the early stage.
Research on scientific theory of abacus-based mental arithmetic
The "three major projects" of the CAMAA have been implemented for three years since 2019, and are respectively undertaken by Zhejiang University, Beijing Normal University and the National Institute of Education Sciences. In the past three years, various research groups overcame many difficulties such as the impact of the COVID-19, carefully organized, carefully arranged and conscientiously implemented, ensuring the successful completion of research plans and tasks. The core achievements of the three major projects constitute the first part of this treatise.
Research on the education and teaching practice of abacus-based mental arithmetic
With the release of documents by the Chinese government on the burden reduction in the compulsory education stage and the issuance of the new version of the compulsory education curriculum plan and curriculum standards, all localities plan and systematically promote the implementation of the compulsory education curriculum plan and curriculum standards, vigorously promote teaching reform, change the mode of education, and practically improve the quality of education. Relevant policies and the latest curriculum plan and curriculum standards have certain guiding significance for the education and teaching of abacus-based mental arithmetic. The collected papers on teaching practice mainly focus on abacus-based mental arithmetic and compulsory education, abacus-based mental arithmetic and kindergarten education, abacus-based mental arithmetic and elderly education, abacus-based mental arithmetic and special education.
Research on the history, culture, inheritance and development of abacus and mental arithmetic
Chinese Zhusuan has been included in the national intangible cultural heritage list and the representative list of human intangible cultural heritage. The relevant research on the history, culture, inheritance and development of abacus and mental arithmetic collected this time focuses on: discussing the significance of promoting the sharing of abacus culture and enhancing the confidence of national culture from the macro level, analyzing the value implication of protecting and inheriting abacus culture, and proposing new ways and strategies for protecting and inheriting abacus culture; Excavate Chinese philosophical elements contained in abacus and its development, and explore the advantages and wisdom of Chinese abacus design and construction; Interpreting and analyzing ancient algorithms in modern languages to prove the practicability of ancient algorithms; Use ancient algorithms or mathematical ideas to verify modern algorithms and demonstrate the scientific nature and practical significance of modern algorithms; Study the innovation and development of abacus and mental arithmetic with concrete examples.
This treatise has collected the latest scientific and practical research results, especially the mystery of abacus-based mental arithmetic in cognitive behavior and brain mechanism; The transfer effect of abacus-based mental arithmetic training and its influencing factors are explored; Under the current policy background, using the latest scientific and theoretical achievements, this paper puts forward some targeted suggestions on the design and teaching implementation of the abacus-based mental arithmetic curriculum, and provides practical thinking on the historical culture and its inheritance and protection of abacus and mental arithmetic. Therefore, this collection has certain reference value for researchers, educators and inheritors of abacus and mental arithmetic.